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Ubuntu - One of Linux Distribution

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution operating system software, meaning that it runs using Linux applications, kernels and libraries. Ubuntu is developed and sponsored by Canonical, Ltd., a South African company that is founded and funded by Mark Shuttleworth.

JavaScript Introduction

Ryan Paulin When dealing with website development, there is lots of scripting language that you can choose from depending on how you want to develop your website. You can use AJAX, HTML, CSS.

Acquainted with CSS ( What is CSS ? )

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. If you read in the dictionary, cascading is similiar with waterfall. But in this case, it means the flow from one code to another code that are interconected. So it can be concluded, CSS is a collection of codes that are consecutive and interlinked to set the format / display an HTML page.

What is Linux ?

Linux – the operating system for a GNU (pronounced Gnew) generation. It has been dubbed the alternative to Microsoft, the solution to all life’s problems and many other things that may or may not be true. But what is Linux, and should you care?

Selasa, 09 Agustus 2011

How to download a YouTube video from Ubuntu 10.04 and 11.04

Oke guys, maybe this is a short post. Many people around there has already know how to download a Youtube video from their Linux Operating System. I use Ubuntu distribution, and at the beginning i really stuck how to download Youtube video.

First, when i use ubuntu, i install 10.04 version, i use MiniTube to download it. For you, that still use Ubuntu 10.04 version, follow this step :
  1. Open your terminal, Applications – Accessories – Terminal, and typed this :
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nilarimogard/webupd8
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install minitube
  2. After the installation finished, open your MiniTube, Applications – Sound & Video – Minitube
  3. When the Minitube window appeared, search the video you want to download.
    For this sample, i try to search "Bon Jovi" video :
  4. And then, the list of your search result will appeared. Just clik on the video you want to download.
  5. To download that video, click on the arrow in toolbar, and than download process will start automatically. Please wait till finished.
For your information, the video you have been download formated as mp4. So, don't be affraid to watch a bad resolution video. And also, you can set the resolutin when you watch the video online. As a video downloader, MiniTube has resume facillity. So, you can start and stop whenever you want.

Now, what different in Ubuntu 11.04 ?

Yeah, let me tell you a little. When i upgrade my system to 11.04 version, and i start to download the video using MiniTube it doesn't work anymore. Then, i use the mozilla add-on to download it. Below is the step :
  1. Choose Tools – Add-ons – Get Add-ons – now type downloadhelper on the search box.
  2. After the result appeared, choose the Download Helper and then klik instal.
  3. When, the installation is finish, restart your mozilla browser.
  4. Now, open the Youtube site, and search for the video you want to download.
  5. Beside the address bar, there will a new toolbar. Klik it, and then choose the video format as you want and download will start immediately.
Okay, i think that is it. Enjoy downloading the YouTube video. Any question ? Leave it to the comment box, and i will help you everything i can. :D

Sabtu, 06 Agustus 2011

7 Useful Commands For Ubuntu Linux Newbies

First off, let me say that I am not one of those terminal loving Linux fans. I think it is cool and all, but I tend to save the command line for things that either require doing a massive batch job, or when I need to do something really specific.
Other than that, I stick to the Gnome GUI, and work within the parameters that various menus offer me. That works for 99% of what I need done.
However, I have found a very few commands that I need on a reasonably regular basis. Since I tend to be somewhat command line averse, I figure I'll throw them out there, for those of you who are new Ubuntu (or other type of Linux users).
Without further adieu, here they are, in order of usefulness to me:
1. ps -A : This will show you a list of all running processes, along with displaying a process id number. This command is helpful, because it is necessary when you run command #2.
2. kill -9 [insert process id number] : This tells the program associated with the process id number to die instantly. For instance, if Amarok was running with a process id number of 8077, and it was hung, or not responding, you would open up a terminal and type: kill -9 8077 . That means "Don't ask me any questions, don't ask if I want to save my work. Close immediately. Do not pass Go, do not collect $200."
3. locate : locate is a very powerful search. Basically, open up a terminal, and issue the command: locate , along with any part of a filename you want to find. locate will give you a reading where any part of that text string appears, along with giving you the exact location of the file(s) in question.
4. lspci and lsusb : Okay, so there are really 8 commands, but these two are two sides of the same coing,so I am throwing them both in together, as a kind of bonus.
lscpi , when issued, gives back a list of everything connected to the PCI bus, along with your graphics card, and some other fun stuff.
If you are having driver issues, many times, the first thing that a help forum will ask you to do, is give them what lspci prints out. lsusb does the same thing, but gives you a rundown of your USB devices. While it may seem rather redundant, especially since you can already see what is connected to your pc, I assure you, it is not. Many times, the manufacturer of the PC, will use one of the built in USB hubs to attach the webcam, a card reader, or some other piece of built-in hardware.
5. pstree : Ever accidentally kill off a process, not knowing that it was being used by a program you wanted to keep up and running? pstree can solve many of these problems. Issuing the pstree command, shows all your processes in a "treed" hierarchy, meaning you can see what process goes with what program. A must-have.
6. ifconfig : While ifconfig will let you actually configure a device, most of the time, you will be typing it to get basic feedback on your networking devices. It is especially helpful when troubleshooting your wireless ethernet. Issue the command, and it gives you back your current ip address, MAC address, and a ton of other useful information. Good stuff.
7. chown : chown , or "change ownership", allows you to do exactly that, for any given file, at any given time. For instance, if you have a public computer, and you don't want just anyone to be able to access your file (diary.txt), then you would issue the command: chown root diary.txt (assuming permissions to view or edit are only available to the owner of the file) . This would give control of the file over to root, and require a password to view.
The only exception would be if you are running your PC, under the root user, in which case, you have far greater problems than someone reading your diary.
There are many other useful Linux commands that you will learn. Hopefully, these make your day a little easier, and your time using Linux more productive.
Enjoy...I have to go now...One more thing...
The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. No one who puts their in Him, need ever be ashamed.

11 Crucial Things an Ubuntu Newbie Should Know

As I was sitting here, preparing to write this article, my mind wandered back to the day I accidentally wiped out a Windows installation with a Gutsy Gibbon CD. I thought I was in trouble. I had just knocked out my work documents, including various templates I made, along with scanner support, and my Adobe 8.0 suite.
It was at that moment I decided to make a go of it with Linux as my sole operating system. After nearly 2 years of tweaking, making mistakes, fixing those mistakes, and then making even more mistakes, I finally feel qualified to give you advice.
In light of this experience, I now present "11 Crucial Things An Ubuntu Newbie Should Know".
1. ps -A: One of the reasons I hated Windows so much was the task manager. When a program would hang, you'd have to open task manager, tell it to kill the program, and wait 5 minutes for the system to kill the application, All the while, it would bog down the processor, hog memory, and be an overall nuisance. 50% of the time, you would have to restart the computer to get the process to clear.
Not so in Ubuntu/Linux. All you have to kill a program is open the terminal, and type "ps -A". This will pull up a list of all the processes currently running, with the name of the program, along with a 4-5 digit number next to it. Then, type "kill -9 PN" (PN should be substituted with the actual Process Number), and hit enter. This will kill the app, no questions asked. It will not ask you any questions, or give you any excuses. That program is now dead, until the time you decide to resurrect it. This will not work with things like Apache, or other process daemons. If you're not sure, just try to kill it. If it doesn't die, then it is probably a daemon. You will have to find the actual documentation to stop the daemon.
Bonus tip: In Ubuntu (Gutsy and later), the command to stop Apache is: sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 stop To restart: sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 start
2. gksudo nautilus: Nautilus is the GUI-based file browser for Gnome, which is the default window manager for Ubuntu. If you are not used to the command line, this command will save you hours when it comes to file operations. Well, it will only save you hours for things that have to be done as root. Things like special system configuration, and other things where you need upgraded privileges will be much faster when you use this command.
Just open the terminal, type "gksudo nautilus", enter your password, and magically you can do anything you want. For faster access, right click the Desktop, select "create launcher", enter "gksudo nautilus" as the command. You can now click the shortcut on your Desktop , rather than opening the terminal and entering a command each time you need access to Nautilus.
3. dmesg: If you have managed to really mess something up, or are having trouble getting things to work, you may need someone with greater experience to take a look. Typing "dmesg" in your terminal window will call up all the messages from your system kernel. Copy and paste this into a text document, attach it to an email, and let a true expert get a look at what is going on with your hardware.
4. Ubuntu's package manager, Synaptic, is a GUI front-end for Aptitude. What you don't know is that Synaptic is set to run in what could be called "safe-mode". It will not go get the latest and greatest versions of the software you are running. It will get the last (often 6 months older) version of the software you want to run. You can upgrades faster by enabling optional software repositories.
To do this, open Synaptic (System > Administration > Synaptic Package Manager), then select Settings > Repositories. Once you are in the repositories window, select the "Updates" tab. The Ubuntu "security" and "recommended updates" repository have already been selected. To get the newer stuff, you need to check "backports" and "proposed" software. Apply, and reload. This should get most of your software up to date, along with the kernel.
5. The kernel: While having the latest and greatest stable kernel can improve system performance, it can also break little fixes you have made along the way. An example: I had gone through the painstaking process of editing some configuration files to get my webcam to work. The last kernel update overwrote the changes I had made, and in the process, disabled my webcam. This can get irritating, but eventually a kernel release might fix an issue on its own, so I guess it is an ok, if not completely lossless tradeoff.
6. Upgrading to the newest version of Ubuntu: Don't do it right away. Always give a new version at least two months in regular use before you decide to upgrade. I have tried to upgrade for 3 releases now, in the first two weeks of availability for the upgrade. Each time, there has been a major failure, mostly in the area of graphics and sound. If your release is stable, there is no reason to upgrade right away, other than a few minor changes in speed and stability. You forfeit these if you upgrade on the first day of a new release. You have been warned.
Got Help?:
7. You can Google it: If you haven't googled it, do not trounce into a forum and ask the question. People are nice, but they really can't stand laziness. If you have searched, and can't find it, it may be a more advanced question that really needs more expert analysis.
Here's the search formula that reaps the best rewards for me: [manufacturer] [model] [problem] [ubuntu distribution]...(e.g. sony vaio webcam installation hardy). You can vary this formula a little bit, as sometimes it takes a few searches to get the hang of it. The one thing that you should not change is having your version of the distribution in the search. The reason is that fixes, and places where applications install can be different depending on the version you are using. This will ensure that you receive the best solution possible.
8. The Forums: Most of the time, Googling the problem will send you to the Ubuntu forums. Get a user name, log in, and be respectful. Be sure you try everything they tell you to before griping that it won't work. The help and advice is free, and usually very helpful in nature.
9. Launchpad: This is a bug reporting service that Ubuntu users use to get bugs and various other problems fixed. You can reach the project at . Once you get there, click on report a bug, and follow the instructions. Be sure the problem has not been reported already, as they will ask. Provide as much information about the incident as possible. They will keep you posted on the progress as far as the problem being resolved, and assign a priority rating based on the severity of the problem. I've had to use it 2 or 3 times. Even the minor problems have been resolved in 2-3 weeks.
10. Don't Be Afraid To Break It
This is the most important rule. This ain't your Granny's china. Stuff will break, you will be the one to break it. You will also be the one fixing it, along with your friend Google. Be patient, be persistent, and walk away for a bit if the solution just won't come. Vindication will come, and when the fix is done properly, or you changed a variable that caused performance to increase, there will a mountaintop rush. Chances are, your significant other won't care, but that won't matter. Feel free to prance around in your boxers, and act like you just won the Nobel Prize.
11. Everything in Windows can be replaced with Open Source software: Really, it can. It takes a little time to find it, but when you do, a whole new world will open up. You'll start to see how things work better than you expected. Things will play that would not on Windows, you'll be able to open every attachment you ever wanted to. Productivity will increase, thereby giving you more time to make your system work faster, and work on your own open source program.
I can't include everything I've learned over the past two years here. There are some other articles that I have written on software packages, and the pros and cons of each. Just google my name and iSnare to get a full list of what I have written on the subject. In conclusion, have fun with Ubuntu, share your knowledge with others, and fear God. Seriously.
That's all the advice I have for you.

jQGrid with JSON Tutorial

Hello friends, we meet again. This time we will learn together about jqGrid. What is jqGrid? This is sort of a collection of code that was formed to facilitate, and beautify the appearance of data. That's in my opinion. :)

jqGrid itself is formed of Javascript, which means to use it. javascript must be active in your browser. If not, then we can never see the beauty jqGrid. :)

Okay, before starting it, first we must download the package of jqGrid. Take it easy, jqGrid provided free of charge. So don't be afraid for asked to pay latter. Please download here. Once downloaded, extract and rename the folder to jqgrid.

Follow this step :
  1. Create a new folder in xampp / htdocs and name it "jqgrid", then copy the downloaded earlier jqgrid into it.
  2. Create a new database, and name db_jqgrid. Then create a table "book" with fields:

  3. Once finished creating the database, now create a new file and name it index.php
    Inside it, typed the code below :
  4. After that, create a new file and rename it to book.php. This file, will take data from database.
    Typed code below :
  5. Finally, open your browser and be sure the javascript is enable.
    And then type in url : http://localhost/coba
  6. And, look how wonderfull jQGrid is it. :)
Oke guys, how about this post? I hope this post will help you. Anymway, some of my friends ask me how to integrated jQGrid with CodeIgniter framework?

In my oppinion, not much different from this post. But, we must write the code with CodeIgniter rules. Allright then, we will discuss about integrating jQGrid in CodeIgniter in my next post.

See you later guys, and Happy Coding all :)

Linux vs Windows ( Which one to pick ? )

Choosing the appropriate operating system is based on the server`s function. Linux is powerful and has a versatile operating system while Windows is well-known for its easy to use operating system and versatility. Deciding the right server was certainly a trial as a decade ago, Microsoft`s Windows NT and Novell`s NetWare4 were prominently in use, but today NetWare has totally disappeared and the Linux version is found to be a good choice. Both Windows and Linux come in server and desktop editions.

Maintenance and security are one of the significant areas to comprehend the actual differences between the operating systems. Linux are commonly referred to as distributions, also known as `distros`, and are released around the same time frame using the same kernel version (operating system). Linux needs careful consideration of hardware drivers as the hardware newly released should be appropriate and this includes the motherboard as well. Linux installation should be done by people who have proper knowledge to run the operating system and its applications. Linux is stable and more secure than Windows.

On the other hand, Windows offers easy installation and runs even in default modes, besides it includes a series of drivers regardless of the hardware type and has the extensive variety of software. However it suffers with frequent security problems demanding critical patches involving rebooting. Moreover it is expensive right from the purchase price to the applications, besides ongoing maintenance is a must to keep it updated and stable.

The comparison of Linux vs. Window includes other considerations such as the price, specialized options and support. Linux has server oriented versions available with vendors and some are offered with 24/7 paid support. There are less expensive distribution versions obtainable at Mepis, Centos and Xandros and others, which are offered at a very low cost to get started, while Debian, Slackware, Mint, Mandriva, Fedora of Red Hat and Ubuntu are all free versions.

On the other side Microsoft Windows server is regular with 32 and 64 bit versions with specialized options such that it is ideal for small as well as medium sized businesses. However, the biggest hit is that Windows is buoyed up by a multi billion dollar company and is compatible with the majority of software, besides it is very easy in using and understanding that even an average user can make the best of it. Windows pricing varies dramatically based on the numbers purchased and on the yearly maintenance agreement or the licensing plan.
The significant difference in Linux version does not speak about the software quality or the drivers` availability, but the support offered. Depending upon the Linux distribution package, the user may get a quick and 24/7 paid support, and this should well suit any corporate environment. Purchasing the operating system and hardware together ensures the support for installed hardware, else it may be required researching to ensure the motherboard, network adapter, chipset and others are supported by the Linux version. The other non-Linux options include OpenSolaris and many variants of Berkley Software distribution.

Kamis, 04 Agustus 2011

10 Major Reason To Switch To Linux

Hello my friends. In this post i will give my oppinion why i should choose linux as my system operating. You can agree or disagree with me. :D Check this out :
  1. It Doesn't Crash

    Linux has been time-proven to be a reliable operating system. Although the desktop is not a new place for Linux, most Linux-based systems have been used as servers and embedded systems. High-visibility Web sites such as Google use Linux-based systems, but you also can find Linux inside the TiVo set-top box in many livingrooms.Linux has proved to be so reliable and secure that it is commonly found in dedicated firewall and router systems used by high-profile companies to secure their networks. For more than ten years, it has not been uncommon for Linux systems to run for months or years without needing a single reboot.
  2. Viruses Are Few and Far Between

    Although it is possible to create a virus to target Linux systems, the design of the system itself makes it very difficult to become infected. A single user could cause local damage to his or her files by running a virus on his or her system; however, this would be an isolated instance rather than something could spread out of control.In addition, virtually all Linux vendors offer free on-line security updates. The general philosophy of the Linux community has been to address possible security issues before they become a problem rather than hoping the susceptibility will go unnoticed.
  3. Virtually Hardware-Independent

    Linux was designed and written to be easily portable to different hardware. For the desktop user, this means that Linux has been and likely always will be the first operating system to take advantage of advances in hardware technology such as AMD's 64-bit processor chips.
  4. Freedom of Choice

    Linux offers freedom of choice as far as which manufacturer you purchase the software from as well as which application programs you wish to use. Being able to pick the manufacturer means you have a real choice as far as type of support you receive. Being open-source software, new manufacturers can enter the market to address customer needs.Choice of application programs means that you can select the tools that best address your needs. For example, three popular word processors are available. All three are free and interoperate with Microsoft Word, but each offers unique advantages and disadvantages. The same is true of Web browsers.
  5. Standards

    Linux itself and many common applications follow open standards. This means an update on one system will not make other systems obsolete.
  6. Applications, Applications, Applications

    Each Linux distribution comes with hundreds and possibly thousands of application programs included. This alone can save you thousands of dollars for each desktop system you configure. Although this is a very small subset, consider that the office suite is included as well as the GIMP, a program similar to (and many people say more capable than Adobe Photoshop); Scribus, a document layout program similar to Quark Xpress; Evolution, an e-mail system equivalent to Microsoft's Outlook Express; and hundreds more.For the more technically inclined, development tools, such as compilers for the C, C++, Ada, Fortran, Pascal and other languages, are included as well as Perl, PHP and Python interpreters. Editors and versioning tools also are included in this category.

    Whether you are looking for Instant Messaging clients, backup tools or Web site development packages, they likely are all included within your base Linux distribution.
  7. Interoperability

    More and more computers are being connected to networks. No system would be complete if it did not include tools to allow it to interoperate with computers running other operating systems. Once again, Linux is very strong in this area.Linux includes Samba, software that allows Linux to act as a client on a Microsoft Windows-based network. In fact, Samba includes server facilities such that you could run a Linux system as the server for a group of Linux and Windows-based client systems.

    In addition, Linux includes software to network with Apple networks and Novell's Netware. NFS, the networking technology developed on UNIX systems also is included.
  8. It's a Community Relationship, Not a Customer Relationship

    Other operating systems are the products of single vendors. Linux, on the other hand, is openly developed, and this technology is shared among vendors. This means you become part of a community rather than a customer of a single manufacturer. Also, the supplier community easily can adjust to the needs of various user communities rather than spouting a "one size fits all" philosophy.This means you can select a Linux vendor that appears to best address your needs and feel confident that you could switch vendors at a later time without losing your investment--both in terms of costs and learning.
  9. It's Not How Big Your Processor Is...

    Because of a combination of the internal design of Linux and development contributions from a diverse community, Linux tends to be more frugal in the use of computer resources. This may manifest itself in a single desktop system running faster with Linux than with another operating system, but the advantages go far beyond that. It is possible, for example, to configure a single Linux system to act as a terminal server and then use outdated hardware as what are called thin clients.This server/thin client configuration makes it possible for older, less powerful hardware to share the resources of a single powerful system thus extending the life of older machines.
  10. Linux Is Configurable

    Linux is a true multi-user operating system. Each user can have his or her own individual configuration all on one computer. This includes the look of the desktop, what icons are displayed, what programs are started automatically when the user logs in and even what language the desktop is in.And lastly no Bill schmendrick character telling you what you can and cannot do.
Okay, maybe that's all what i want to tell you. As i said before, you can agree or disagree with me. This is just my opinion. Well, that's it.

See ya next time. Happy Coding All. :)

Rabu, 03 Agustus 2011

Installing XAMPP and AppServ in Windows Operating System

Okay, this time we will try to install xampp or AppServ on your PC or Notebook with Windows Operating System in it. This post relates to my previous post "Reviewing Web Server Package". So if you do not know about web server package, please see that posting. You can also get the download link of the Webserver Package Installation.

To the installations step, just follow the steps below. I'll try to make it easy as possible. Check this out. :)

After you finish downloading the webserver package either XAMPP or AppServ, double clik it.

XAMPP Installation
  1. After you got the installation menu, specify wich drive will be installed by Xampp. Better let it remain on drive "C: /". Then click install:

  2. Wait until the installation process is complete.

  3. Next you will be asked to do the XAMPP settings through the "Windows Command Prompt". Follow step 4 to 9 :
  4. Type "y" when you got the question "Should I add shortcuts to the StartMenu / desktop? (y / n): "Continue to press the ENTER key.
  5. Type "y" on the next question "Should I procedd? (y / x = exit setup): ". Continue to press the ENTER key.
  6. Type "n" on the question "your choice? (y / n): ". Continue to press the ENTER key.
  7. XAMPP is ready for use. Press the ENTER button to perform the automatic setting php.ini and my.ini.
  8. Press the ENTER button again to resume, type "x" for the question "Please choice (1-7 / x):".
  9. Finally, to end the installing process and setting XAMPP by once again pressing the ENTER key.
  10. After installation is complete, go to the Xampp Control Panel.

  11. Check the Apache and MySql list, then click the start button in each section as well. The result will be like this:

  12. And, Xampp are ready to use.
To check if XAMPP is running properly, try opening a browser and typing the following URL: http://localhost/

If the XAMPP select language appear, it means your XAMMP is ready to use and settings have been going well.

AppServ Installation

Installing appserv has no different way from installing xampp. To install AppServ, please follow the guidelines below:
  1. Klik File Appserv yang didownload, lalu Klik Next.

  2. Click I agree.

  3. Click Next.

  4. Click Next again. :)

  5. Take this setting :
    Server Name = localhost | Email = Isikan Email Anda | Port = 80

  6. Fill in Password column with a password that you want, Re-enter the password, then click Install.

  7. After the installation process is complete, click Finish.

To see whether the installation was successful you can check via your browser and type the URL "http://localhost/". Yap, its the same way as checking the XAMPP installation. If AppServ successfully installed, it will look like the following:

That's it, how to install Local Server on our PC or Notebook. This local server will use to parse the PHP script.

In next post, we will begin to make a PHP document. Thank you all

At last, Happy Codding All. :)

Reveiwing Web Server Package

Before starting to learn PHP, first we must have installed a Web Server on our PC. There are a lot of software that can be used in making the web with PHP. But on this occasion, I will discuss two of the most common software used to make the web with PHP. And the happy news is, this software is free. :) The software to be discussed is XAMPP and AppServ. Both this software, has provided applications for building standard web with PHP. The application is "PHP, Apache, MySQL, and FTP". Here is a glimpse of its software.


XAMPP is a tool that provides some software packages into one package. By installing XAMPP then no longer need to perform the installation and configuration of Apache web server, PHP and MySQL manually. XAMPP will install and configure it automatically for you or auto configuration.

Download Link :

Download XAMPP

2. AppServ

AppServ is a full-featured of Apache, MySQL, PHP, phpMyAdmin, which only takes a minute to install. AppServ is a All-in-one free database that contains all the packages on:

- Apache



- PhpMyAdmin

All packages download from Official Binary AppServ Release. AppServ aims to make installation easier. AppServ not provide an installer other than Official Binary Release package. Because the Official Binary Release work better than compile by individual or other third-party binary.

AppServ only have special configuration when install, Apache configure httpd.conf, MySQL configure my.ini, PHP configure php.ini. AppServ can guarantee each packet of AppServ can work stable like Official of Apache, PHP, MySQL Release.

Download Link :

Download appserv-win32-2.5.10

Download appserv-win32-2.5.10 from



Okay, for how to install it, I'll try to explain in my next posting in detail. So keep follow me :)

At last, Happy Codding All :)

Applying HTML ( How does it work ? )

Hello all, still have a passion for learning? I hope so :) Okay, on the posting i made before, we already know the tags which generally used when creating a website. Well, for now let us learn to use it. I'll try to explain the following in this example. Remember to try it your self because when you accustomed write the code, it's become very easy. :) Oke, cek this out..

Some things to note in writing HTML are:
  1. Don't forget to always close the tag, although the browser can still display the appropriate result, but familiarize to always close the tag.
  2. Always use lowercase, because it will be very useful if you use an HTML 5 or XHTML.
  3. Always give quotes to the attributes of the element or tag.
  4. Ellement attributes are case-sensitive, which means the writing of "example" with "Example" is something different.
The first is heading tags

The heading tags is <h1> to <h6>. The <h1> means the biggest text will appear, and the <h6> means the smallest text between the heading tags. Take a look to this sample.
<h1>This is heading</h1>

This is heading

<h2>This is heading</h2>

This is heading

<h3>This is heading</h3>

This is heading

<h4>This is heading</h4>

This is heading

<h5>This is heading</h5>
This is heading
<h6>This is heading</h6>
This is heading
Note: The browser will automatically add a space before and after heading. This can be changed using CSS.

Horizontal Line Tags

To create a horizontal line, use the <hr /> tags. This tags will create a horizontal line in HTML page. For an example :
<hr />

and the result is below

Comment Tags

HTML comments can be provided by adding a <!-- Create your text here -->tags

Paragraph Tags

<p> tags is use to create a new paragraph on an HTML page. The browser will automatically add new lines before and after the tag. Let's see the example below :
<p>This is a paragraph</p>

This is a paragraph

<p>The next paragraph</p>

The next paragraph
Line Break Tags

<br /> tags is use to create a new line without having to add a paragraph. <br /> tags is an empty HTML element, which means can not be given attributes. Then it is highly recommended to add a slash after the br.

Hyperlink Tags

To add a link, use the <a> tags. In order to open link in a new tab, add a attribute target = "_blank". For more details, see example:
--> This link will open in the same page.

Web Learning

--> This link will open in the new tab

Web Learning
Image Tags

To add an image in an HTML page, use the <img> tags. Location of the image placed on the attribute href = "". Here's an example of using <img> tags and attributes commonly used:
<img href="" border="0" width="64" height="64" />

Explanation :

src="" --> The location of the image to be inserted into HTML pages.

border="0" --> Indicates that there is no border around the image. To give the border, then just replace the zero with 1,2,3 or whatever according to the desired thickness.

width="64" --> Attribute to specify the width of the image will be displayed.

height="64" --> Attribute to determine the height of the image to be displayed.
Note: <img> tags are single tag, so always add a slash after the attribute.

Table Tags

<table> tags used to create tables. To declare the table row, use <tr> tag, and for the column, then use <td> tags. Lets see the example below :

<tr><td>Put some Content Here</td></tr>

Put some Content Here
When using the table tags, u can place a table iside a table. An u can manipulate the row or the columns freely. To make that, use the "rowspan" or "colspan" atribut.

Oke guys, i think it's enough for today. Just remember, keep your spirit to learn.

And the last. Happy Coding All :)


Okay, on this occasion we will get to know some HTML tags are most often used when creating web pages. Actually, there are still a lot of other html tags, apart from that I post here. But the tags are very rarely used. So, for now we know the first tags that many of us have encountered.

If you still curious about the whole HTML tags, you can directly check at the address:

Well, here I try to give the HTML tags are commonly found with a short description of the used of the tags. Check it out. :)
Tag Description
<!--...--> Defines a comment
<!DOCTYPE> Defines the document type
<a> Defines an anchor
<abbr> Defines an abbreviation
<acronym> Defines an acronym
<address> Defines contact information for the author/owner of a document
<applet> Deprecated. Defines an embedded applet
<area /> Defines an area inside an image-map
<b> Defines bold text
<base /> Defines a default address or a default target for all links on a page
<basefont /> Deprecated. Defines a default font, color, or size for the text in a page
<bdo> Defines the text direction
<big> Defines big text
<blockquote> Defines a long quotation
<body> Defines the document's body
<br /> Defines a single line break
<button> Defines a push button
<caption> Defines a table caption
<center> Deprecated. Defines centered text
<cite> Defines a citation
<code> Defines computer code text
<col /> Defines attribute values for one or more columns in a table
<colgroup> Defines a group of columns in a table for formatting
<dd> Defines a description of a term in a definition list
<del> Defines deleted text
<dfn> Defines a definition term
<dir> Deprecated. Defines a directory list
<div> Defines a section in a document
<dl> Defines a definition list
<dt> Defines a term (an item) in a definition list
<em> Defines emphasized text
<fieldset> Defines a border around elements in a form
<font> Deprecated. Defines font, color, and size for text
<form> Defines an HTML form for user input
<frame /> Defines a window (a frame) in a frameset
<frameset> Defines a set of frames
<h1> to <h6> Defines HTML headings
<head> Defines information about the document
<hr /> Defines a horizontal line
<html> Defines an HTML document
<i> Defines italic text
<iframe> Defines an inline frame
<img /> Defines an image
<input /> Defines an input control
<ins> Defines inserted text
<isindex> Deprecated. Defines a searchable index related to a document
<kbd> Defines keyboard text
<label> Defines a label for an input element
<legend> Defines a caption for a fieldset element
<li> Defines a list item
<link /> Defines the relationship between a document and an external resource
<map> Defines an image-map
<menu> Deprecated. Defines a menu list
<meta /> Defines metadata about an HTML document
<noframes> Defines an alternate content for users that do not support frames
<noscript> Defines an alternate content for users that do not support client-side scripts
<object> Defines an embedded object
<ol> Defines an ordered list
<optgroup> Defines a group of related options in a select list
<option> Defines an option in a select list
<p> Defines a paragraph
<param /> Defines a parameter for an object
<pre> Defines preformatted text
<q> Defines a short quotation
<s> Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text
<samp> Defines sample computer code
<script> Defines a client-side script
<select> Defines a select list (drop-down list)
<small> Defines small text
<span> Defines a section in a document
<strike> Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text
<strong> Defines strong text
<style> Defines style information for a document
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<table> Defines a table
<tbody> Groups the body content in a table
<td> Defines a cell in a table
<textarea> Defines a multi-line text input control
<tfoot> Groups the footer content in a table
<th> Defines a header cell in a table
<thead> Groups the header content in a table
<title> Defines the title of a document
<tr> Defines a row in a table
<tt> Defines teletype text
<u> Deprecated. Defines underlined text
<ul> Defines an unordered list
<var> Defines a variable part of a text
<xmp> Deprecated. Defines preformatted text
Ok, maybe that's for this time. For more tags, you can visit W3School website

The Basic of HTML

What is that HTML ? Maybe for the master designer or web programmers and networks administration, the word is already very familiar. But how for newbie like us ?

Allright, for more details, a brief understanding of HTML will be described below. Come on, check this out :)

HTML Definition

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. HTML was first invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, which is the basic framework internet. Although now there are so many language used to create a website, but i'm sure every site using the HTML language to display text, graphics, sound, and animation. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) adalah pihak yang menjadi pemegang resmi dari bahasa ini. (

The History of HTML

HTML language comes from the old language called Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). At least that's what Google said. :) he development of HTML already started approximately ten years before the language was introduced as Bill Atkinson's find HyperCard for a Macintosh computer and MacOS operating systems. Well, the idea behind HyperCard was the one that supports HTML language, which is hyperlinking, which means the ability to connect from one area in a single word or a Web page to the other pages or area. The concept is very simple, but before the presence of HyperCard never would have thought to apply.

Use of HTML

Okay, enough small talk and a history lesson about HTML. Then, how HTML works? Maybe that's the question for us that will begin to learn to create a website.

Simply, HTML is composed from a series of "elements". The elements that worked as a language that tells the browser to display the recipient of certain elements on the screen. Element in HTML is known as "tags". Well, this tag is what will define what should be displayed by the browser, the recipient will be. That Elements work as a language that tells the recepient browser to display certain elements on the screen. Element in HTML is known as "tags". Well, this tag is what will define what should be displayed by the recepient browser than.

HTML Structure

You can say, the HTML document is a web page. Simply put, an HTML document is composed of tags,,. Here is an example HTML page that is very, very, very simple.


Any elements or tags in an HTML must have an opening tags and closing tags. For example, the<html> tag is the beginning of an HTML document, and when the </html> tag is written, then the browser will assume there is the end of an HTML document.

Tag is used to tell the browser about everything about the HTML document that is in though. Whether it's title, author, or other script languages ​​are in use. So, when the </html> tag read by the browser, then that's where the end of the description of the HTML document.

Tag <body> is the whole content can be displayed and can be viewed directly by the user. As above, this tag is also in the end by </body> tag. So, we can say, each element should be is in the open and closed. To close an element, most use a slash mark before the name of the element. for example:
Opening tag <html> -> closing tag </html>
Opening tag <head> -> closing tag </head>
Opening tag <title> -> closing tag </title>
Opening tag <body> -> closing tag </body>
But sometimes, there are some tags that do not have a closing tag, or can not add the closing tag. For example, to add a new row is in use the tag <br>. Because these tags do not have a closing tag, it is the recommended giving a slash after the name tag, the example is <br />. Although if you do not add a slash, the browser will still be able to define the tag. But it is not recommended.

Okay, for a basic explanation of HTML i think it is quite up here. For an explanation of the tags in HTML, i will try to explain in my next post. Okay, keep your spirit to learning. I'm just a nubie, so i hope we can learn together.

At last, Happy Coding All. :)

Senin, 01 Agustus 2011

What is Linux ?

Linux – the operating system for a GNU (pronounced Gnew) generation. It has been dubbed the alternative to Microsoft, the solution to all life’s problems and many other things that may or may not be true. But what is Linux, and should you care?

To answer the first question, it’s a free operating system that looks and acts very much like Unix. You can download it off the Net for free, or you can copy it legally from a friend – although this might take all the fun out of using that CD-Writer you’ve got and never use for anything, except to brag about it to your friends.

Alternatively, you can buy it nicely packaged from an Internet store and get it delivered with a book about Linux, (Linux Unleashed).

Distributors charge not for the operating system itself, but for their time in packaging and presenting it. Two popular flavors of Linux are Free BSD and Ubuntu. These offer the same basic systems with a few slight differences that can lead to long and entertaining godly wars between supporters of each.

If you’re getting into Linux for the first time, Ubuntu is a good bet. You can either go for Ubuntu Desktop which comes with a GUI, or you can opt for Ubuntu Server if you planning to host websites of your own. The server edition has no GUI, but you can install KDE or Gnome to make your life easier. Most of your configuration will be done via the Terminal and you will have to learn a lot of Linux commands.

Linux is more complicated, and it depends on the kind of person you are. If you’re the type of computer user who wants every application to run straight out of the box and your system to just do what it’s told and run your games, then stick with Windows. But if you’re a pioneering soul who wants to find out more about your system and tweak it to perform to the max, then Linux is definitely worth a try.

If you want rock-solid Internet access, if you want to support the development of free software and more efficient solutions, or if you’re just the type of person who needs control over every aspect of your life including how your machine performs, then you’re definitely a Linux candidate. Linux is perfectly suited to students, developers and just about anyone who wants to try something other than the norm. Newcomers will find support straight off the Internet from thousands of kindred spirits.

It’s worth a try – maybe you’ll discover a Whole New World of fun and adventure. Or maybe you’ll just take it straight off your machine and go back to Windows. However, if you planning to try it out, then load it on that old machine that’s just lying around in the basement. You don’t need powerful processors and hardware – the most important component is memory. If you have 512mb and a 20gig hard drive then you should be OK. You should be able to run all your applications including your websites with ease. Remember, you will need a permanent connection to the Internet if you going to host your own websites. The best part is that you don’t need any antivirus and antispyware software if you’re running Linux. Every would-be-virus-writer out there has only one target in mind – Microsoft Windows.

Whether you stick with Linux or not, you’ll have come out of your safety zone and taken a trip to the cutting edge of computer technology.

Published At: Free Articles Directory -
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Javascript Introduction

Ryan Paulin When dealing with website development, there is lots of scripting language that you can choose from depending on how you want to develop your website. You can use AJAX, HTML, CSS. Flash, Illustrator and a lot of other scripting languages that are commonly used nowadays. One of the most popular scripting languages is the JavaScript. Although it may sound like it was a part of the popular programming language which is Java that was developed by Sun, JavaScript is entirely different from it.

It was introduced with Netscape Navigator for website development and is designed to build dynamic online pages, used to check details on html forms before the page is allowed to submit any data. You can use JavaScript to manipulate webpages for it to be able to perform variety of functions. Although there are lots of available JavaScript codes that you can just copy online, you still need to learn its basics if you want it to do what it have to do. You do not need to learn HTML as well, as JavaScript does not use it. What you need to know about HTML is where you should place your JavaScript so that it will function properly.

Most web developers use JavaScript so that there can be an interaction between the visitor and the webpages. If you are into website development, of course you need your visitors to be able to interact with the website dynamically as nobody likes a stale webpage that just sit there. It is also helpful in protecting your passwords, detecting browsers and displaying information. JavaScript allows the website designer to have more control over the user’s browser and how the browser will see the webpages.

When writing a JavaScript, you can simply use a notepad instead of doing it directly into your HTML document to avoid messing it up. You should also have a browser that is compatible with JavaScript so that you will be able to see if your script is working just fine. Remember that testing is essential in website development to make sure that you are getting your desired output. JavaScript is not as complicated as the other scripting languages, as long as you know the basics, especially the terms, then you will never go wrong in writing your own script.

If you do not want to go through writing the scripts for your website development, you can just simply go online and search for websites that can give you access to customizable JavaScript snippets wherein you can just copy and paste your customized objects and place it into your website. Although JavaScript can help you develop your website into something dynamic, you should also avoid scripts such as mouseover sounds, mouse trailers, mouseover popup windows and mouseover redirects, as these scripts might irritate your visitors most of the time making them leave your website instead of staying longer. If you want to learn more about JavaScripts and how to write it, there are several tutorials that you can find online and these tutorials can definitely help you develop your website into something greater that what you could have expected.

Acquainted with CSS ( What is CSS ? )

What is CSS ?

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. If you read in the dictionary, cascading is similiar with waterfall. But in this case, it means the flow from one code to another code that are interconected. So it can be concluded, CSS is a collection of codes that are consecutive and interlinked to set the format / display an HTML page.

The advantages of using CSS

If you have several pages where you use arial font for writing, then one day you get bored with arial and want replace it with trebuchet, you have to change one by one at your page and change the font type from arial to trebuchet.

By using css, to change the look of many pages, you simply do it in one CSS document, without having to touch the HTML file.

Thus, the advantages of using CSS, more practical!

Disadvantages Using CSS

Although CSS make designing web page easier and faster, but still there is a shortage of css. Not all browsers interpret CSS code in the same way. So sometimes, the web interface with the CSS looks good in one browser, but the mess in other browsers. So you should check the display to look good in all browsers and add special codes specific browser if needed in order to display your website looks good in all browsers. Needed more training so that when you designing a website with CSS, it can showed properly in all browsers.

Syntax / The way to writing CSS

Syntax / CSS sentences composed of several sets of regulations that have: a selector, a property, a value.

The format of writing sentences CSS:
selector { property: value }
Selector to indicate which parts are going to set up / formatted.

Property to show which parts of the selectors who want to set.

Value is the value of its settings.

h1 { color: red }
The example below show :
Selector: h1

Property: color

Value: red
Or we can said like this : That css has the function to set the color from h1 tags to red.

Grouping the Selectors

You can write a CSS code for a variety of selectors by using a comma. Suppose you want to set the tag h1, h2 and h3 all use red, then the CSS code become like this :
h1,h2,h3 { color: red }
Consider writing h1, h2, h3, separated by commas.

Using Many Properties

To set more than one properties you can use separator semicolon (;).

h1,h2,h3 {color:red; font-family:arial; font-size:150%;}
In the example above, tags h1, h2 and h3 are set to use red, with arial font type and font size to 150%.

How the Good Writting of CSS ?

It is advisable to write the CSS code using a few lines in which setting property and its values ​​in the indent. Yes, to be more organized and easier to read, not a necessity.
h1,h2,h3 {
Now that you understand the basic rules of writing sentences CSS. The next post will teach you apply the CSS code to your pages.

CSS Comment

Sometimes, it helps you write comments in your CSS code to give a reminder note.

You can use the syntax /* for the opening tags and * / as clossing tags to write a comment. Any text that is between the tag / * and * / will not be read as a code, but only as a record for yourself.
/* Write your comment here */
text-align: justify;
/* Write your comment here */
color: blue;
font-family: arial;
Inputing CSS to Web Document

There are three ways to inputing CSS to your web document. What are they ? Let me explain it one by one. Check this out :
  1. External style sheet
    An external style sheet is ideal when the style is applied to many pages. With an external style sheet, you can change the look of an entire Web site by changing one file. It consume less time and powe. Each page must link to the style sheet using the <link> tag. The <link> tag goes inside the head section:
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css" />
    An external style sheet can be written in any text editor. The file should not contain any html tags. Your style sheet should be saved with a .css extension. And you can put that .css files anywhere you want. But, be sure to call the right place in your html files. For a better result, it's recommanded to use full path instead of simple path. An example of a style sheet file is shown below:
    hr {color:sienna;}
    p {margin-left:20px;}
    body {background-image:url("images/back40.gif");}
  2. Internal style sheet
    An internal style sheet should be used when a single document has a unique style. You can do this, if don't make many changes to your html files. Or you will get confused to edit it later. You define internal styles in the head section of an HTML page, by using the <style> tag, like this:
    <style type="text/css">
    hr {color:sienna;}
    p {margin-left:20px;}
    body {background-image:url("images/back40.gif");}
  3. Inline Styles
    An inline style loses many of the advantages of style sheets by mixing content with presentation. Use this method sparingly! To use inline styles you use the style attribute in the relevant tag. For your information, this style rarely use in web developing. Because when you want to edit it, yeah you must find the css and also take a look at the thml tags. The style attribute can contain any CSS property. The example shows how to change the color and the left margin of a paragraph:
    <p style="color:sienna;margin-left:20px">This is a paragraph.</p>
  4. Multiple Style Sheets
    If some properties have been set for the same selector in different style sheets, the values will be inherited from the more specific style sheet.For example, an external style sheet has these properties for the h3 selector:
    And an internal style sheet has these properties for the h3 selector:
    If the page with the internal style sheet also links to the external style sheet the properties for h3 will be:
    The color is inherited from the external style sheet and the text-alignment and the font-size is replaced by the internal style sheet.
  5. Multiple Styles Will Cascade into One
    Styles can be specified:
    • inside an HTML element
    • inside the head section of an HTML page
    • in an external CSS file
    Tip: Even multiple external style sheets can be referenced inside a single HTML document.
Cascading order

What style will be used when there is more than one style specified for an HTML element?

Generally speaking we can say that all the styles will "cascade" into a new "virtual" style sheet by the following rules, where number four has the highest priority:
  1. Browser default
  2. External style sheet
  3. Internal style sheet (in the head section)
  4. Inline style (inside an HTML element)
So, an inline style (inside an HTML element) has the highest priority, which means that it will override a style defined inside the <head> tag, or in an external style sheet, or in a browser (a default value).

Oke, i think that's all i want to introduce you about CSS. There some word i copy from w3school. Next posting, we will try to make a dropdown menu with css. Interesting? Let's wait until next post. :)

At last, Happy Coding All :)

Installing XAMPP on Linux

To install Xampp on windows, is not a difficult thing in fact. We just follow the instruction, wait a while, and XAMPP was ready to use. However, in linux we encounter something slightly different. Maybe this tutorial for some people is easy, but for the needy, but if you having trouble to install XAMPP in your Linux, follow this instruction.

Note : In this tutorial I use Xampp for Linux version 1.7.4

Well, without much talking let's start installing Xampp on linux. :)

  1. First, download the linux version of xampp on their official website, click here to download xampp for linux version 1.7.4.
  2. Put the downloaded files .tar.gz on the desktop if it is not automatically saved on the desktop.
  3. Open a terminal (Applications> Accessories> Terminal).
  4. Go to where you store the downloaded xampp for linux earlier. (I assume you save it on your desktop, if you do not please go to the place you store it.
    cd desktop
  5. Login as super admin. (On some Linux distributions such as Ubuntu 10 you do not need to log in as super admin. You just add sudo at the beginning of each command.)
    sudo -s
  6. Enter the password if requested.
  7. Extract the downloaded files into the folder / opt.
    tar xvfz xampp-linux-1.7.4.tar.gz -C /opt
    For users of Ubuntu version 10 and above, including me:) type the following command.
    sudo tar xvfz xampp-linux-1.7.4.tar.gz -C /opt
    The above command will be extract xampp into the folder / opt / lampp.
  8. Now, we try to run the xampp with the command.
    /opt/lampp/lampp start
    or try with this command.
    sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start
  9. After the XAMPP running, open a browser and go to localhost (http://localhost) If all goes well, then we will get a language selection page of XAMPP.
  10. After selecting your language, we will automatically go to the welcome page.
  11. Now we go to the security page by clicking Security on the left menu. You will get "unsecured" status in all lists.

    If you will use XAMPP for local activities or just on a personal computer, this should not be a big problem. But, it helps us to practice to make Xampp "more secure".

    Next, let us make our XAMPP more secure.

  12. Type the following code at the terminal.
    /opt/lampp/lampp security
    Or like this if error message appeared.
    sudo /opt/lampp/lampp security
    Note : Make sure you are logged in as super admin.
  13. Type "yes" or "y" when asked to set a password and enter the password you want twice.
  14. After that, type "yes" or "y" when you are asked if you do not want MySql accessed through network. This option is optional. If you choose yes, then it will restart mysql. Please wait a moment.
  15. Then, you will be prompted to set passwords for PhpMyAdmin. Do as the previous step.
  16. And again, you will be prompted to set the password for user "root" in MySQL. Make sure the password was easy to remember, or if you forgot, this things will become a big problem. :)
  17. The next is to set a password for ftp. You could set no to this option, but it's better to keep it set even though it was not going to use latter. With this, then xampp security setting will be completed
  18. To ensure everything goes smoothly, we returned to the browser and go to localhost (http://localhost)
    You will be asked to enter a username and password.
    Enter username: lampp.
    Enter password: (as you were setting it before)
  19. After the welcome page opens, go to page security. You will see the status of each list to be "secured".
Okay at this stage, the installation of XAMPP on Linux is complete.
Next we will set the htdocs folder for easy in its use later when creating websites. From my experience, when i try to put my website folder in htdocs folder, and try to access it from browser, i got an error said that "Files not found". Well, i try this one to fix it.

Follow this step :

  1. Open a terminal and type the following command.
    mkdir ~/public_html
    Or you can easily right-click on the home, create a new folder and name it "public_html" without quotes of his.
  2. Now we create a link from public_html folder to folder / opt / lampp / htdocs. Please open a terminal and type the following command.
    sudo ln -s ~/public_html /opt/lampp/htdocs/
  3. To set the "user permissions" for the htdocs folder, reopen the terminal, then log in as super admin and typing the following command.
    chown yourusername -R /opt/lampp/htdocs
    or :
    sudo chown yourusername -R /opt/lampp/htdocs
    This command will change the owner or ownership of the original htdocs folder owner to yourusername.
    Command -R means recursive, where the htdocs folder and files and folders inside it will also be replaced its ownership.
Okay, that is it. Our XAMPP is ready to be used to design or developed website. :)
However, when we restart the computer, then we should re-open the terminal, and type the command.
sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start
If you want to run XAMPP automatically each time you boot your system, then follow these steps:
  1. Click the menu system > preferences > Startup Applications.
  2. After the Application Startup window opens, click add.
  3. Then enter this command :
    Name = Xampp
    Command = /opt/lampp/lampp start
That is it, every time you boot, xampp will automatically run.

If you want a Graphic User Interface (GUI) to run and stop XAMPP, follow these steps:
  1. Open the terminal and type :
    gksudo gedit
  2. Copy dan paste this code on your gedit.
    [Desktop Entry]
    Comment=Start and Stop XAMPP
    Name=XAMPP Control Panel
    Exec=gksudo python /opt/lampp/share/xampp-control-panel/
    Name[en_CA]=XAMPP Control Panel
    Comment[en_CA]=Start and Stop XAMPP
  3. After that, save in "/home/usr/share/applications" and set the name "xampp-control-panel.desktop" to the files
  4. Now, XAMPP Control Panel will appeared at menu Applications > other.
    Clik it, and you will get a window like this one :
Okay, that's it. Congratulations and do usefull thing. :)

If there any mistake on this post, please correct me because i'm still learn.

At last, Happy Codding All. :)

Minggu, 31 Juli 2011

Ubuntu - One of Linux Distribution

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution operating system software, meaning that it runs using Linux applications, kernels and libraries. Ubuntu is developed and sponsored by Canonical, Ltd., a South African company that is founded and funded by Mark Shuttleworth.

The underlying focus of Ubuntu is mostly on the usability of the software and the freedom of software from existing restrictions. Ubuntu derives its name from an African term meaning “humanity to others.” Given this, Ubuntu is based on the principle that software should be made available to everyone, that they are tools that people can use regardless of the language they speak and whether or not they have disabilities, and that software should be customizable according to the needs of their users. Most of all, Ubuntu is developed based on the idea that software should be free, and should be used freely, without any cost.

The core applications of Ubuntu are available for free, and they can be downloaded from the Ubuntu website, which is The CD that contains these core applications can also be ordered and shipped anywhere in the world free of charge. Aside from these core applications, Ubuntu also has around 16,000 programs to suit the needs of its users. It is also available for both desktop and server use.

The desktop package of Ubuntu is complete and has features that make both working and playing viable through the use of this operating system. For word processing, spreadsheet and database creation, and other functions covered by Microsoft Office, Ubuntu has Ubuntu also carries Mozilla Firefox in its package, which allows for tabbed browsing, has strong pop-up blocking and is well-known for its relative invulnerability to malware. Ubuntu’s counterpart for Microsoft Outlook is Evolution, which similarly acts as an email client, an address book and a schedule manager. Ubuntu’s answers to Microsoft’s Windows Media Player are Rhythmbox Media Player for audio files and Totem for videos.

Another feature of Ubuntu that makes it attractive is the high level of customization it makes possible for its users. Ubuntu also supports 40 languages; it also has the Rosetta translation tool, which allows a user to create a dictionary and translator for his or her own language.


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